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  • 分詞作狀語用法歸納總結

    時間:2020-6-15 作者:admin

    分詞作狀語用法歸納總結

      分詞分為現在分詞 和過去分詞 兩種,是一種非謂語動詞 形式?,F在分詞和過去分詞主要差別在于:現在分詞表示“主動和進行”,過去分詞表示“被動和完成”(不及物動詞的過去分詞不表示被動,只表示完成)。分詞可以有自己的狀語、賓語 或邏輯主語等?!∫韵率切【帪榇蠹艺淼姆衷~的用法總結,希望能幫助大家更好地認識分詞,提高英語水平。

      一、現在分詞短語作時間狀語有以下三種情況:

      1.分詞動作一發生,謂語動作緊跟著發生,這時用現在分詞的一般式作時間狀語,其邏輯主語為句中的主語。常用的動詞,如:hear, see, arrive, return, get to, look, open, close, leave, turn around, walk等,表示一個極短暫動作。

      此種情況可以換作on+動名詞,表示相同的意思。譯作"一(剛)……就……"。

      此種情況也可以換作是when引導的時間狀語從句,該從句的動詞多用一般過去時表示。 如:Hearing their teacher's voice, the pupils stopped talking at once.(= On hearing their teacher's voice… = When they heard their teacher's voice, the pupils…)一聽到教師的聲音,學生們立即停止講話。

      2.謂語動作發生在分詞所表示的動作過程之中,則用when /while+現在分詞的一般式,分詞的邏輯主語為句中的主語。此種情況可以用in+動名詞的一般式代替。也可以換作when、while引導的時間狀語從句,該從句的謂語動詞用進行時態。如:

      Don't be careless when /while having an exam. = Don't be careless in having an exam. = Don't be careless when / while you are having an exam. 考試時不要粗心。

      注:此結構中,不能用其他連接詞替換when或while。

      3.分詞所表示的動作完成之后,謂語動作才發生,則要現在分詞的完成式,即having done的形式。分詞的邏輯主語應是句中的主語。

      這種情況可以用after+動名詞的一般式表示。

      這種情況也可以用after /when引導的時間狀語從句來替換,該從句的謂語動詞用過去完成式。 如:Having finished his homework the boy was allowed to watch TV play.

      After having finished his homework, the boy…

      After /when he had finished his homework, the boy…

      二、現在分詞在句中作原因狀語

      1.分詞短語在句中作原因狀語時,相當于一個原因狀語從句。與時間狀語一樣,也要注意分詞所表示的動作與謂語動作的先后關系。當分詞所表示的動作與謂語動作同時發生或幾乎同時發生時,用分詞的一般形式。此時分詞的邏輯主語須是句中的主語。這樣的原因狀語可以換成because, as引導的原因狀語,該從句謂語動詞用一般過去時。

      Not knowing how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked the teacher for help.

      因為不知道如何解這道物理難題,他求助老師。

      = Because he didn't know how to work out the difficult physics problem, he asked…help.

      2.當分詞表示的動作發生在謂語動作之前,可以用現在分詞的完成式在句中作原因狀語,其邏輯主語須為句中的主語,該短語的作用相當于一個原因狀語從句。該從句的謂語動詞須用完成時。如:

      Having lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well.

      = Because we have lived with the girl for 5 years, we all know her very well.因為與那個女孩一起生活了五年,我們都非常了解她。

      三、現在分詞短語在句中可以作條件狀語,其邏輯主語須為句中的主語,該短語相當于一個條件狀語從句。

      Working hard, you'll succeed. = If you work hard, you'll succeed. 如果你努力工作,你會成功的。

      Turning to the left, you will find the path leading to the park.

      = If you turn to the left, you will find the path leading to the park.如果轉向左邊,你將找到通向公園的小道。

      四、分詞短語在句中作讓步狀語

      分詞短語在句中作讓步狀語時,相當于一個讓步狀語從句,有時分詞前可以帶有連接詞although, whether, even if, even though。

      現在分詞短語作讓步狀語,分詞的邏輯主語是句中的主語,變成狀語從句時,需用主動語態。

      Weighing almost one hundred jin the stone was moved by him alone.

      = Although the stone weighted almost one hundred jin, it was moved by him alone. 雖然那塊石頭重將近一百斤,他一個人就把它挪動了。

      五、分詞短語在句中作結果狀語

      現在分詞短語在句中可以作結果狀語,它的邏輯主語便是句中的主語,該短語相當于一個結果狀語從句,且用主動語態。分詞短語在句中作結果狀語時,通常位于句末,中間有逗號。有時為了加強語氣,就在分詞前加thus。

      Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus causing the delay.

      = Their car was caught in a traffic jam, thus it caused the delay. 他們的車遇上交通阻塞,因而耽誤了。

      六、分詞短語在句中表示方式或伴隨情況

      分詞短語表示方式或伴隨情況是比較常見的。它用來說明動作發生的背景或情況。一般情況下,現在分詞所表示的動作與謂語所表示的動作同時發生,它的邏輯主語就是句中的主語,謂語動詞作為主要動作,而現在分詞表示一個陪襯動作,它沒有相應的狀語從句可以轉換,但可以用并列句來轉換。過去分詞可以說明謂語動作的背景。過去分詞與其邏輯主語之間有動賓關系。如:

      The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily.

      The children laughed and talked merrily, and they ran out of the room. 那些孩子們跑出房間,愉快地笑著、說著。

      Helped by their teacher, the students finished the task successfully. 在老師的幫助下,學生們成功地完成了任務。

      If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.

      -> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.

      假如多給些照顧,那些樹會長得更好。

      As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.

      -> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.

      由于沒有收到他的信,我給他打了電話。

      典型例題

      1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

      A. Followed  B. Followed by  C. Being followed  D. Having been followed

      答案B. Napoleon 與follow 之間有被動的含義。being followed除表達被動之外,還有動作正在進行之意。 followed by(被…跟隨)。本題可改為:                 With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.

      2)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.

      A. Heating  B. To be heated  C. Heated  D. Heat

      答案C. 本題要選一分詞作為狀語?,F在分詞表主動,正在進行的;過去分詞表被動的,已經完成的。對于液體來說是加熱的受動者,是被動的,因而選C。它相當于一個狀語從句 When it is heated,…

      3)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.

      A. followed  B. following  C. to be followed  D. being followed

      答案B. 由于聲音在閃電后,因此為聲跟隨著光,聲音為跟隨的發出者,為主動。用現在分詞。

      注意: 選擇現在分詞還是過去分詞,關鍵看主句的主語。如分詞的動作是主句的主語發出,分詞就選用現在分詞,反之就用過去分詞。

      (Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.

      由于用了很長時間,這本書看上去很舊。

      Using the book, I find it useful.

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